How to Process and Print
|Processing Step||Time||Agitation and Notes|
|1. Developer||Use the development time for your film/developer/temperature combination given in the film or developer instructions.||Smoothly lower the loaded film reel into the developer solution in the tank, and attach the top to the tank. Turn on the lights. Firmly tap the tank on the top of the work surface to dislodge air bubbles. Provide initial agitation for 5 seconds, and then repeat the 5-second agitation at 30-second intervals for the remainder of the development time. (See the table below for agitation techniques for different types of tanks.) Drain the tank.|
|2. Stop Bath||30 seconds||Pour in the stop bath, and agitate continuously. Drain the tank.|
|3. Fixer||2 to 4 minutes with a liquid-concentrate fixer
5 to 10 minutes with a powder fixer
|Pour in the fixer. Agitate continuously for the first 30 seconds, and then at 30-second intervals. Drain the tank.
IMPORTANT: With KODAK T-MAX Professional Films, fixer will be exhausted more rapidly than with other films. Fix for 3 to 5 minutes in KODAK Rapid Fixer or 5 to 10 minutes in KODAK Fixer, KODAFIX Solution, or POLYMAX T Fixer. If negatives show a pink stain after fixing, the fixer may be near exhaustion or the fixing time was too short.
|4. Rinse||30 seconds||Rinse the film in the tank under running water.|
|5. Hypo Clearing Agent||1 to 2 minutes||Agitate continuously for the first 30 seconds and then at 30-second intervals.|
|6. Water Wash||5 minutes after Hypo Clearing Agent
20 to 30 minutes without Hypo Clearing Agent step
|Remove the top from the tank. Run the wash water at least fast enough to provide a complete change of water in the tank in 5 minutes. For rapid washing in a small tank, fill the tank to overflowing with fresh water and then dump it all out. Repeat this cycle 10 times.|
|7. Wetting Agent||30 seconds||Provide gentle agitation for 5 seconds of the total time. To reduce drying scum, mix KODAK PHOTO-FLO Solution with distilled water in areas that have hard water.|
|8. Dry||As necessary||Remove the film from the reel, and hang it up to dry in a clean, dust-free place.|
Agitation is very important for even development of the film. Follow the procedure below for the type of tank you are using:
|Small-Tank Agitation Procedures|
|Type of Agitation||Type of Tank|
|Initial Agitation||Tap tank on work surface to dislodge air bubbles. Provide 5 to 7 inversion cycles in 5 seconds, i.e., extend your arm and twist your wrist 180°.||Tap tank on work surface to dislodge air bubbles.Rotate film reel 4 or 5 times during first 5 to 10 seconds.|
|Subsequent Agitation||At 30-second intervals, repeat 5 to 7 inversion cycles in 5 seconds.||At 30-second intervals, rotate film reel 4 or 5 times.|
After processing, thoroughly wash and dry all equipment that came into contact with chemical solutions. When the film is thoroughly dry, cut it into shorter strips of negatives to make proof sheets.
Always store your negatives in sleeves or envelopes away from dust and extreme temperature and humidity.
Kodak black-and-white photographic papers are available in a wide variety of sizes, speeds, contrasts, surface textures, image tones, stock tints, and weights.
To start, we suggest that you use KODAK POLYCONTRAST III RC Paper for both your contact prints and your enlargements. The resin coating on this paper permits short processing and drying times. When you expose it with KODAK POLYMAX Filters, you can produce different degrees of contrast in the prints you make from one package of paper.
When you become more proficient in printing and enlarging, you may want to try other papers. See "More Information" for publications on Kodak papers.
Proof sheets are photographic prints that include many images from strips of negatives. The print images are the same size as your negatives. They can help you choose the best negatives for enlarging, and they also make a good record of your prints to file with your negatives.
To make a proof sheet, you'll need your strips of negatives and a printing frame with a 7-watt light bulb or an enlarger and a piece of glass.
You can make a printing frame by using a piece of window glass or clear Plexiglas and a piece of composition board. Both pieces should be the same size. Put one piece on top of the other and use wide adhesive tape to make a hinge connecting the two pieces. (If you use glass, it's a good idea to tape the remaining edges so that you won't cut yourself.)
Before exposing your proof sheet, prepare your paper-processing solutions. You'll need the following chemicals:
Kodak has a variety of black-and-white paper developers to choose from. Some are designed to enhance paper characteristics, such as a warm image tone. A good all-around developer to start with is KODAK DEKTOL Developer, diluted 1:2 (1 part stock solution to 2 parts water).
You can use the same type of stop bath and fixer that you used to process your film, but be sure you mix it properly. Most fixers require a 1:3 dilution for use with film and a 1:7 dilution for paper. (See the fixer instructions.)
Mix the developer, stop bath, and fixer according to the instructions packaged with the chemicals, and store the solutions in labeled bottles.
When you are ready to make your proof sheets, arrange four trays on the work surface in your darkroom. Label them "Developer," "Stop Bath," "Fixer," and "Wash."
Working from left to right, pour the developer in the first tray, stop bath into the second tray, and fixer into the third tray. Fill these trays to a depth of about one-half inch of solution. Fill the fourth tray with water. Adjust the solutions to 65 to 70°F (18 to 21°C) by placing a small, deep bowl of either warm or cool water into the tray of solution. Be careful not to spill any water into the solutions.
Be sure your hands are clean and dry before handling your negatives and paper. Now you are ready to expose your proof sheet. Follow these steps:
If you're using a printing frame and a 7-watt bulb, hang the bare bulb 2 feet above the frame and turn it on for about 10 seconds. A 10-second exposure should be right, but you may have to experiment to get the correct exposure. If the processed print appears too light, make another proof sheet with double the exposure time; if it's too dark, use half the time.
If you're using an enlarger light source to make your proof sheet, place the empty negative carrier in the enlarger, and set the lens at f/11. Adjust the enlarger height so that the light covers an area just larger than the size of your paper. Expose for about 8 seconds. Again, you may have to experiment to get the correct time.
Your proof sheet should serve as a good guide for selecting the negatives you want to enlarge. Study the images to find the ones with the best composition and exposure level (neither too dark nor too light). When you've selected a negative you want to enlarge, it's a good idea to make a test strip or print to determine the exposure you need to make a good enlargement. (After you've gained some experience, you won't need to make a test strip or print for every negative you print.)
Test exposure prints and strips serve the same function, but are different in size. A test print is a sheet of photographic paper exposed and processed to find out if your exposure and contrast estimates are correct. (Although your first test print may look good enough to be the final print, don't be disappointed if it doesn't.)
A test exposure strip is a 1- or 2-inch-wide strip of enlarging paper cut from a larger sheet. Because it's more economical to expose test strips than full test prints, we'll focus on test strips here.
If the strip looks flat or muddy, use a higher-numbered POLYMAX Filter in the enlarger to increase the contrast. If it has a very harsh, contrasty appearance, use a lower-numbered filter.
Now that you know the approximate exposure and best contrast, you may want to make one final test strip, with very small differences in exposure time between steps, to determine the very best overall exposure time before making a full print.
When you're satisfied with your exposure test, place a sheet of paper, emulsion side up, under the masking guides on the enlarger easel. Turn on the enlarger and expose for the time determined by your tests. Turn off the enlarger. Remove the sheet of paper, process it, and dry it.
Safe Disposal of Used Chemicals. Be sure to dispose of chemicals properly. To a large extent, exactly how you do that will depend on what the chemicals are, the volume of the solutions you discard, and whether you are discharging them into a sewer or into a septic system. Generally, you can pour small amounts of used photographic solutions down the drain without ill effect. Discard the solutions one at a time (to avoid unwanted chemical reactions). Rinse the sink thoroughly and flush the drain with plenty of clean water after dumping each solution. Because the discharge or disposal of spent photographic solutions may be subject to local, state, or federal laws, contact the appropriate authorities to determine the requirements that apply to your area.
You can purchase the following Kodak chemicals from dealers who sell Kodak Professional products.
KODAK XTOL Developer. Provides excellent image quality with fine grain and high sharpness in both normally processed and push-processed films. It's supplied as a powder for easy, room-temperature mixing.
KODAK T-MAX Developer. Produces excellent image quality and improved tone reproduction (increased shadow detail) in both normally processed and push-processed films. It's supplied as a liquid concentrate.
KODAK Developer D-76. A general-purpose developer that produces moderately fine grain, full emulsion speed, and maximum shadow detail. It comes in powder form.
KODAK HC-110 Developer. A highly active developer supplied in liquid-concentrate form. It produces negatives of similar quality to those obtained with Developer D-76, but requires shorter development times.
KODAK MICRODOL-X Developer. An excellent fine-grain developer designed to produce low graininess and high sharpness of image detail. It's particularly good for developing small negatives from which you want to make big enlargements. MICRODOL-X Developer is available in both powder and liquid forms.
After development, you'll need a stop bath for rinsing your film and prints. You can use KODAK Indicator Stop Bath (1:63) or KODAK EKTAFLO Stop Bath (1:31). Both are available as liquid concentrates, and both have built-in indicators to signal when the chemicals are exhausted and should be discarded.
KODAK Rapid Fixer. An easy-to-use liquid concentrate for very rapid fixing of films and normal fixing of prints. It consists of two concentrates that you add to water to prepare the fixing bath. Dilute 1:3 for film and 1:7 for paper.
KODAFIX Solution. A general-purpose liquid-concentrate, single-solution fixer for both films and papers. Just mix with water for immediate use. Dilute 1:3 for film and 1:7 for paper.
KODAK Fixer. Recommended for general use with films and papers. It comes in powder form. Just mix with water for immediate use.
KODAK POLYMAX T Fixer. Single-solution hardening fixer for films and papers. Designed for use with KODAK POLYMAX T Developer. Dilute 1:3 for film and 1:7 for paper.
KODAK DEKTOL Developer. For neutral and cold-toned images on papers such as KODAK POLYCONTRAST III RC, POLYMAX II RC, KODABROME II RC, and KODAK POLYMAX Fine-Art Papers. It's supplied in powder form. Dilute 1:2 for use.
KODAK POLYMAX T Developer. For neutral or cold-toned images on papers such as POLYCONTRAST III RC, POLYMAX II RC, KODABROME II RC, and POLYMAX Fine-Art Papers. It's supplied as a liquid concentrate. Dilute 1:9 for use.
KODAK Hypo Clearing Agent. Shortens washing times and makes possible more thorough washing of films and prints. It reduces the wash time to 5 minutes for films, 10 minutes for single-weight papers, and 20 minutes for double-weight papers. This water-saving chemical is not recommended for water-resistant, resin-coated (RC) papers, which already have a short wash time (4 minutes). Dilute 1:4 for use.
KODAK PHOTO-FLO 200 Solution. A liquid concentrate that minimizes water marks and drying streaks on film, and speeds drying. Dilute 1 part concentrate to 200 parts water for use.
KODAK Toners. For altering the image tone of black-and-white prints and prolonging print life. Several Kodak toners are available for producing various tones, depending on the toner/paper combination and the dilution of the toner.
KODAK Darkroom Lamp. For use in a wall socket or a drop-cord socket. Sturdy metal. Accepts circular 5 1/2-inch safelight filters (not included).
KODAK 2-Way Safelight. For use in either a wall socket or a ceiling socket. Swivels to provide direct or indirect illumination. Holds a 3 1/4 x 4 1/4-inch safelight filter (not included).
KODAK Safelight Filters. Supplied in a variety of sizes and colors for use with papers and certain films.
Kodak has many publications to assist you with information on Kodak products, equipment, and materials.
|F-2||Pathways to Black and White|
|F-32||KODAK T-MAX Professional Films|
|G-10||KODAK PROFESSIONAL AZO Paper|
|G-16||KODAK PROFESSIONAL KODABROME II RC Paper|
|G-21||KODAK PROFESSIONAL POLYCONTRAST III RC Paper|
|G-23||Toning KODAK Black-and-White Materials|
|G-24||KODAK PROFESSIONAL POLYMAX Fine-Art Paper|
|G-28||KODAK PROFESSIONAL P-MAX Art RC Paper|
|G-27||KODAK PROFESSIONAL PANALURE SELECT RC Paper|
|G-26||KODAK PROFESSIONAL POLYMAX II RC Paper|
|J-24||KODAK HC-110 Developer|
|J-78||KODAK Developer D-76|
|J-86||KODAK T-MAX Developers|
|J-87||KODAK T-MAX 100 Direct Positive Film Developing Outfit|
|J-109||KODAK XTOL Developer|
|K-4||How Safe Is Your Safelight?|
The following books are available from photo-specialty dealers who sell Kodak products:
|F-5||KODAK Professional Black-and-White Films|
|R-20||KODAK Black-and-White Darkroom DATAGUIDE|
Note: The Kodak materials described in this publication are available from dealers who supply KODAK PROFESSIONAL Products. You can use other materials, but you may not obtain similar results.
Kodak, Kodak Professional, Dataguide, Dektol, D-76, Ektaflo, HC-110, Kodabrome, Kodafix, Microdol-X, Photo-Flo, Polycontrast, Polymax, T-Max, and Xtol are trademarks.
AJ-3 January, 2000